Human Trafficking National Hotline 1-888-3737-888

Human trafficking in the US is a rapidly growing humanitarian, public health, safety, law enforcement and homeland security issue. Many times it may intersect with domestic violence, child or elder abuse, or sexual assault. Here are informational resources for medical personnel.

Quick Overview

General Information

Information for Medical Personnel


  • Creating an interdisciplinary medical home for survivors of human trafficking. McNiel M, Held T, Busch-Armendariz N. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep;124(3):611-5.
    PMID: 25162264
  • Commercial sexual exploitation and sex trafficking of children in the United States. Greenbaum VJ. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2014 Oct;44(9):245-69. PMID: 25131563
  • Human trafficking and health: a conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research. Zimmerman C, Hossain M, Watts C.  Soc Sci Med. 2011 Jul;73(2):327-35. PMID: 21723653
  • Domestic minor sex trafficking in the United States. Kotrla K. Soc Work. 2010 Apr;55(2):181-7. PMID: 20408359
  • Health Outcomes Among Women Trafficked for Sex in the United States: A Closer Look. Muftic LR, Finn MA. J Interpers Violence. 2013 Jan 6. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23295378
  • Trauma and its aftermath for commercially sexually exploited women as told by front-line service providers. Hom KA, Woods SJ.  Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2013 Feb;34(2):75-81. PMID: 23369118
  • Human trafficking: a call for heightened awareness and advocacy by obstetrician-gynecologists. Tracy EE, Konstantopoulos WM. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 May;119(5):1045-7. PMID: 22525917
  • Identifying domestic and international sex-trafficking victims during human service provision. Macy RJ, Graham LM. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2012 Apr;13(2):59-76. PMID: 22491971
  • Identification of human trafficking victims in health care settings. Baldwin SB, Eisenman DP, Sayles JN, Ryan G, Chuang KS. Health Hum Rights. 2011 Jul 14;13(1):E36-49. PMID: 22772961
  • The role of the nurse in combating human trafficking. Sabella D. Am J Nurs.2011 Feb;111(2):28-37; PMID: 21270581

What is reportable?

  • » HT itself is presently not a mandated report for medical personnel
  • » If there is overlap with domestic, child or elder abuse or sexual assault, perform mandated reporting as per protocol PLUS
  • » Call Human Trafficking national hotline to activate appropriate law enforcement and help patient receive services